With the release of the 6100A Power Quality Standard, Fluke Precision Measurement provides a highly accurate, scalable system for calibrating power measurement tools to meet the new demands of the global market.
The First Truly Universal Power Standard
With the Fluke 6100A Electrical Power Standard, power and power quality measurement devices can be checked, verified, and calibrated with one highly accurate instrument. Undesirable phenomena can be reliably generated individually or simultaneously to determine the ability of these devices to detect and measure it under actual conditions. It provides an accurate, controllable source of:
- Pure sinusoidal electrical power
- Harmonically distorted electrical power
- User definable sags and swells
- User definable flicker
The 6100A is also configurable from one to four phases, allowing users to create a system that matches their needs, but is also easily expanded. Consisting of a master unit, which provides the first phase and auxiliary units that provide up to three additional phases controlled through the master unit, the Fluke 6100A is configurable to the differing power voltages and frequencies that have been adopted globally, enabling the user to select relevant values for the measurements being made. The Windows® user interface provides familiar commands and settings, reducing the training required for user fluency.
Taken together, the 6100A represents the first integrated system on the market which provides users the ability to guarantee the accuracy of the power measurement tools they design, manufacture, verify and calibrate, or use to make measurements. It is the ideal standard for power meters, power factor meters, power quality analyzers, power recorders, and power meters with quality measurement capabilities.
The 6100A provides the signals to allow this process to be completed effectively, quickly and easily. More importantly, it ensures that the process of validation is completed thoroughly, accurately and with all measurements being traceable to national standards.
As an Electrical Power Standard, the 6100A has been designed to produce a comprehensive array of electrical power signal types to a very high degree of accuracy. This can be achieved over 1, 2, 3 or 4 phases independently and simultaneously depending on system configuration.
The 6100A will supply pure sinusoidal Voltage to 1000 V and Current to 20 Amps. Up to 50 VA’s of power is available from the Voltage terminals to support instruments which draw power from the line on which they are measuring. Up to 15 V of compliance is available from the current output to ensure current is delivered in setups involving long cable runs, connectors and switches, or where multiple instruments are connected in series to speed throughput. Voltage and Current have uncertainties of 100 ppm. The phase angle between voltage and current is continuously adjustable from -180 ºC to +180 ºC with an uncertainty of 10 milli degrees.
In addition to the values of V, I and phase angle set by the user, the on screen display shows calculated values of real power (W), Apparent Power (VA) and Reactive Power (VAR). In this mode of operation the 6100A can be used to calibrate or verify measurement of Power, VA, VAR, Phase angle, Power Factor, Voltage and Current on single or multi-phase instruments.
The 6100A Master Unit offers self contained single phase operation with one voltage and one current output. For multi-phase applications, the addition of one or more 6101A Auxiliary units provides additional phases, with identical performance but without the overhead of controls or display. Additional phases can be added individually until a maximum of four phases is reached. In multiphase systems, each phase remains totally independent and totally electrically isolated, yet synchronized with and under the control of the master unit. This means applications where phase imbalance or sequence errors are required are simple and easy to arrange.
Flicker is a complex measurement which sets out to measure the “annoyance factor” of a flickering light caused by modulation on it’s supply voltage which is in turn caused by events such as large loads switching in and out, or load balancing on the network. The measurement is defined by IEC standard IEC-61000-3-3. In simple terms, the measurement of Flicker is a combination of two variables, amplitude and frequency of modulation over a period of time, (ten minutes to produce the so called Pst Value). The 6100A simulates flicker by amplitude modulating the voltage at a depth and frequency of modulation set by the user. The Pst value of this combination is calculated and displayed on screen.
In addition to sinusoidal voltages and currents, the 6100A can supply accurate amounts of harmonic distortion. All of the first 100 harmonics can be set by the user to level of up to 30 % of the fundamental, with a total harmonic distortion (THD) of 50 %. This can be achieved totally independently on voltage and current, and does not compromise uncertainty or traceability of the instrument.
This mode of operation can be used to calibrate or verify measurements made by devices such as power analyzers, power loggers, disturbance analyzers etc. It is also valuable in ensuring that simpler measurements such as voltage, power or power factor are performed accurately under non-sinusoidal conditions.
Interharmonics are continuous signal elements at non-integer multiples of the fundamental. For example, in a 60 Hz supply system, 180 Hz is a Harmonic (the 3rd) but 190 Hz is an interharmonic. Measurement of interharmonics is relatively new, but is becoming increasingly important. Correct measurement is vital to understanding the true nature of problems on an electrical network, and this facility provides the capability to ensure that interharmonics are measured correctly, without being misinterpreted within other measurements. The 6100A can generate two independent Interharmonics at a user definable level and frequency on both the current and voltage outputs.
Fluctuating harmonics are simply individual harmonics which are amplitude modulated. The 6100A is able to modulate from 0 to all of the defined harmonics at up to 30 % of its nominal amplitude with a frequency of up to 30 Hz.
Dips and Swells
Output voltage can be caused to dip to a level below nominal or swell to a level above nominal for a period of between half a cycle and one minute. Ramp in, and ramp out times to the new level are independently controllable. The dip or swell can be triggered internally to be synchronous with a preset value of phase of the fundamental, or triggered externally from another device.
Full verification of complex measurement devices requires that complex combinations of signals are handled correctly. This fact has been recognized within the power measurement industry, and is incorporated in IEC 61000-4-30. This standard requires, amongst other items, that measurement instruments are tested with compound signal types, for example flicker on a harmonically distorted voltage. The 6100A supports this need by making most signal types available simultaneously.
The user interface of the 6100A is critical to allow users to exploit its extensive capabilities. To ensure simplicity of operation, a Windows® user interface has been adopted. The interface is accessed through a combination of front panel knobs and buttons, an optional mouse and keyboard and a high resolution, 9 inch TFT display. Status information of all 4 phases is displayed, alongside more detailed information on current parameters being set or adjusted. Frequency domain and time domain representation of current signal types can be displayed on the screen so that the user is able evaluate the effect of control settings before applying the signal to the output terminals of the 6100A. At the bottom of the screen a context sensitive help window further guides the operator through instrument set-up by providing additional control information and error messages.
Instrument setups can be saved and recalled within the instrument or on floppy disk.